Evaluation of Rock/Fracture Interactions during Steam Injection Through Vertical Hydraulic Fractures (1997)

by A. R. Kovscek, R. M. Johnston, Tadeusz W. Patzek
Year: 1997


Kovscek, A. R., T. W. Patzek and M. Johnston, "Evaluation of Rock/Fracture Interactions during Steam Injection through Vertical Hydrofractures,” SPE Production and Facilities, 100-105, May 1997.


The design, results, and analysis of a steamdrive pilot in the South Belridge diatomite, Kern County, California, are reviewed. Pilot results demonstrate that steam can be injected across a 1,000-ft-tall diatomite column using hydraulically fractured wells and that significant oil is produced in response to steaming. A computationally simple numerical model is proposed and used to analyze reservoir heating and volumetric sweep by steam. Results from the analysis show that hydraulic fractures undergoing steam injection can be dynamic and asymmetrical.