Ethanol Production: Energy, Economic, and Environmental Losses

by David Pimentel, Tadeusz W. Patzek, Gerald Cecil
Year: 2007


Pimentel, D. and Patzek, T. W., and Gerald, C., “Ethanol Production: Energy, Economic, and Environmental Losses,” Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 189:25-41, 2007


The supply of “conventional” oil is projected to peak before 2010, and its decline thereafter cannot be compensated fully by other liquid fuels (Youngquist and Duncan 2003). The United States critically needs to develop liquid fuel replacements for oil in the near future. The search for alternative liquid fuels has focused on the use of biomass.


Biomass Biofuel Conversion Thermodynamics Efficiency Corn Agriculture Fermentation Distillation Biorefinery